Thursday, 5 November 2015


By Bill Bohlen

In this document, we look at various methods or techniques applied by videographers everywhere.

·      Filming Techniques
·      Editing Techniques
·      Audio Techniques

For the purpose of this, I have based it on travel videos, but the filming, editing and postproduction methods are the same for any other movie you care to produce.

We’ll learn how to create a video masterpiece using the equipment we already have. This can be with a video camera, a DSLR or a smart phone, although for the latter you are somewhat limited when it comes to properly framing a shot. There are some great point and shoot cameras on the market that also produce excellent HD video.
When using a DSLR to film, use Manual focusing if you want to use the soundtrack of the original footage, as the inbuilt microphone will pick up the motion noise of the zooming mechanism.

Recording media
These days, there are really two major options to record video on, Internal device memory and/or flash memory cards.
When using a DSLR to film, use Manual focusing if you want to use the soundtrack of the original footage, as the inbuilt microphone will pick up the motion noise of the zooming mechanism.

Recording media
These days, there are really two major options to record video on, Internal device memory and/or flash memory cards.

Internal Memory
Inbuilt memory records faster and can store more data than flash drive cards. For example the Canon Legria HFS20 can record 19 hrs on standard play and 24 hrs on long play.

Flash Memory Cards
The most dominant memory cards are Secure Digital (SD) or Secure Digital High Capacity (SDHC) cards.
When it comes to flash memory cards, there are three aspects you need to consider: physical format, size, and speed. Each of the three variables has its own set of classes, so you can have anything from a 1GB Class 2 microSD card to a 64GBSDHC card. The standard SD card is the largest and has been in use the longest, measuring 32 by 24 by 2.1 mm (HWD), weighing 2 grams, and showing the signature cut-corner profile SD cards are known for. Most digital cameras you can buy today use standard-size SD cards. Even though they're the largest SD card, they're still very small, and are dwarfed by the CompactFlash cards used by professional photographers in high-end digital cameras, like the $5,000 Canon 1D Mark IV.

SD cards offer different storage capacities, and that amount of space determines the card's size classification. Most SD cards you'll find today are technically SDHC, with capacities between 4GB and 32GB. The largest class is SDXC, or Secure Digital Extended Capacity, can range from 64GB to 2TB.

Standard Play v Long Play
Standard Play produces better video quality and is preferable, especially during post production processes. Long Play is traditionally used when it is required to record long events, such as conference speakers, sporting events or concerts. It is NOT recommended to produce video events such as travel, wedding or commercial videos

Sony is the market leader in proprietary video cameras. Most professional video production houses, television stations and government agencies use Sony products. But recently, Canon has caught up to an extent and they are now also manufacture video cameras with excellent performances

Video Formats
Most DSLR and Point and Shoot cameras these days also capture full 1080 HD video. 1080i video means 1,920X1,080 frame size in pixels (WXH) capturing 2.073,600 pixels per image.

Recommended Accessories
The following equipment is highly recommended when producing video productions:

1 - External Microphone
Wind sound. Camera mikes also have a bad habit of picking up wind noise, so much so that the sound is virtually unusable when you’re editing the movie.

Camcorders are powerful tools for capturing family memories and for use in journalism and filmmaking, but unfortunately they're not the best-equipped devices for recording clear sounding audio. When family members or film subjects speak to your camera, it doesn't take long to realise that the built-in microphones are inadequate at picking up dialog clearly. Since being able to understand what is being communicated is just as important to your audience as the picture quality, it's a good idea to upgrade your camera microphone. External microphones usually come supplied with a wind shield to eliminate wind noise.

One of the best types of external microphones is a wireless mike where the actual microphone is clipped onto the person being filmed with a receiver mounted on or at the camera with a cable plugged into the microphone input of the camera. That way the camera picks up a clear voice of the person speaking and thus eliminates most of the surrounding background noise. Alternatively you can use a microphone mounted on a boom someone is holding just out of shot of the camera, the mike being connected to the camera by a cable.

2 – Tripod/Monopod
A sturdy tripod with a pan head or at least a monopod. A monopod is also very handy to shoot over the heads of people in front of you.

3 – External Light
While it is unlikely that you will carry lights or reflectors with you when you travel, here are just a couple of examples professional videographers use on their shoots.

Of course, one of the best light sources for your video productions is right up there in the sky and it is free. There are no differences between photography and videography lighting. Check out Diane’s lesson notes on the camera club blog entitled. Natural Light.

Alternatively you can buy a camera mounted light from the supplier of your camera. They are not always interchangeable with other camera brands. Be aware that these lights are very heavy on your batteries, so if you use one, make sure you have additional charged batteries with you.

Read Manual
As basic as it sounds, it is a good idea to explore each function available on your camcorder or camera you are using to record video. Read the Manual from front to cover, then read it again. There is nothing more frustrating as missing out on a good scene because of unfamiliarity with the controls. Know all the buttons inside out. Take lots of practice video using all the functions available on your camera.

About this Video Course
As I mentioned before, for the purpose of this course, I have structured the lessons on a travel or holiday video, but pre-production, planning, filming methods and editing are the same no matter what video you want to produce.

Research the places you are visiting. Find out what is interesting there to film. Google the place and find out what people recommend you go and see. If you are really dedicated, check out where the sun is at the time you plan a visit. Find locations off the beaten track, film stuff not every other tourist will.

Check if there are festivals or events on at the time you are visiting.

Research the local music of the place. Check if filming is allowed. In some country you are not allowed to film everything.

Planning is one of the most important segments of a video that captures the viewer. Go to You Tube or Vimeo and watch other people’s travel videos. Also watch travel segments on TV and learn how professionals make these films. Especially take note of scene lengths and composition, which we will discuss later in this course.
Make notes before you go to your destination and in your mind picture how you’re going to structure your video. After a few successful video productions, this will become second nature to you.

Knowing where to start when planning a video project can seem overwhelming at first. This phase is also known as "pre-production" because it encompasses everything you do before the camera starts rolling. Good video planning at the beginning of your project will help you stay on the right path to a successfully completed project.

Start with a goal and an audience in mind. When planning a video, think about what you want to accomplish with your video and why you want to accomplish it. Really try to envision your audience and think about how your video might address their needs. 

Flow is something you develop with time, that is how you structure the speed of your story telling. I enjoy trying to fit stories into internet ready timeframes ie 1-5 minutes. It suits my attention span and can be done quickly.

Decide what your target audience is going to be. That will determine the length of your video production. If you want to upload it onto You Tube or Vimeo, the video should not be longer than 1 – 5 minutes. If you are going to show it to family and friends, it should most certainly be less than 30 minutes. 20 minutes is about right. There is nothing more boring, than watching other people’s videos that go on and on and on. Nobody likes to watch that, not even your immediate family (although they probably wouldn’t tell you to avoid hurting your feelings).
Make a list of all the resources you have available:

The time you have available on your project
The equipment you have.
The skills you have to produce your video. Don’t be afraid to ask family or friends to help you

In your mind, imagine the location for your shoot and picture or imagine how you plan to capture the scenery and atmosphere even though you may not have been there before. It helps you formulate your movie before you even start.

Think about what type of background music you will use in your movie. Music that matches the area. Do you already have suitable background music or will you be able to purchase CDs while on location.

My Pet Hate
A lot of amateurs make the mistake of using the first CD that comes to hand to use as background music, usually CDs that have well past their use-by date. There is nothing more boring than watching your friend’s movie of an outback rodeo with Andre Rieu playing the ‘Blue Danube’ in the background.

What Sound does to us
The most obvious role music plays in movies is in manipulating the audience's emotions and engendering in them the desired feelings. The selection of certain sounds create feelings of happiness, fear or even panic. Science writer Philip Ball, author of "The Music Instinct," says our brain is hard-wired to respond in emotional ways: "Our response to certain kinds of noise is something so profound in us that we can't switch it off. Film composers know that and use it to shortcut the logical part of our brain and get straight to the emotional centers."
Music introduces people, places and things. It helps establish where the footage was taken.
You can never achieve that with an old CD.
It is therefore very important to do your research and plan to us the right type of music.
There are lots of websites that offer free ‘copyright-free’ music for your videos, it just takes a bit of searching.

Think about possible sound effects you can add to your music. You may be able to source them from the internet. A lot of camera sounds recorded can be vastly improved by using artificial sound tracks. A couple of years ago, we traveled to South Australia and took a trip on the famous Pitchi Richi steam train. I made a video of it and wasn’t happy with the camera sound. It just didn’t sound right, even though it recorded the original train. On the internet, I found a steam engine sound track, including the occasional whistle from an English steam train. It sounded great. The clip was just 10 seconds long. I captured it and used it throughout the video. Now my video sounds great.

This course is designed on a travel video but can be applicable to any video you want to produce.
Commercial Productions
If you have been asked to produce a commercial type video such as a wedding video, an advertising video or an events video, there are some more factors to be taken into consideration.

You will probably need someone to help you filming such a shoot. You may want to utilise a second camera (A and B Roll). Where camera A shoots the general footage and most likely the main sound and camera B shoots close ups or cutaway shots which are then inserted into the story line during the editing process. So you’ll need a second camera operator.

It is also highly recommended to use a second camera of the same brand as your first camera. This will ensure that the colours will match better in the final result, although most editing software has the capability to adjust colour ranges to a certain degree.

If you’re going to sell your videos, you’ll need to prepare a budget incorporating all costs incurred in the production such as:
·      Equipment Hire
·      Wages for help
·      Dolly or Scaffolding
·      Studio costs if required
·      Costumes
·      Props
·      Special Vehicle Hire

You’ll need to make sure you, your help and any equipment are covered by insurance in case of an accident

You’ll need to make sure you have all necessary permits to shoot at your chosen location.

Tell a Story
Plan to tell a story and try to evoke emotion from your audience.

Watch other people’s videos and adapt what you like and ditch what you don’t like.

What is the main goal when making a movie
First and foremost, grab the audience and keep them captivated.

Ever go to the movies? Of course you do! Ever walk out of a movie? It has to be pretty bad for you to walk out of a movie, right?

Ever watch television? Most people do. Ever change channels in the middle of a television show? Of course you do. If a show gets boring, you’re gone. How come you change the channel on your TV so quickly but it takes you so long to walk out of a movie? Because you paid for the movie. So there is a natural tendency to slog through a movie, no matter how bad it is. People who watch television or watch videos on line have extremely short attention spans. If something gets boring or bad, they’re gone. So you can’t hold on to good material and save it for later.

Use the  Rule of Thirds. Use active and negative space.
Frame shots the same as you do when taking photograph

Scene Length
Keep your finished scenes short. Between 1 and 5 seconds, unless there is a specific reason. Maybe your filming a wedding, concert or sporting event it is acceptable to have long scenes, but for travel movies, I don’t recommend it.

I suggest you watch a few documentaries on television and take note of the length of scenes professionals use. But so you can edit your production successfully, take an extra 3 or 4 seconds before and after every shot. It makes it all that much easier when you edit your final production.

Filming Techniques
Don’t use your camera like you use your eyes. For example if you walk into a room, your eyes, including your head will move around the room to take in all the details. You must not do that with your camera.

The best thing is to walk around evaluating everything and then shoot the most important things from their best angles. Don’t shoot the same things from different angles, unless you want to create a special effect.

Steady Camera
In videos, it is very important to hold your camera steady. That is why it is recommended to use a tri or monopod when recording scenes. Of course it is not always possible to schlep a bulky tripod with you when you’re traveling.

There are other methods to hold a camera steady:

Mini tripod
Small beanbag – sitting on a table or fence
Folded up towel to support the camera

But if you haven’t any of those things with you, learn how to hold your camera very steady by:
- Hold the camera in both hands with elbows anchored against your body. Take a deep breath before you ‘Button On’ and hold your breath until you ‘Button Off’.
Lean against a wall, tree, fence, anything to keep your camera steady.

Using a monopod held in your hands with the camera attached to it also helps greatly to keep your shots steady.

This is especially important if you are walking with your camera while filming. Walking with just the camera will result in ‘swimming footage.’

You can also construct your own inexpensive ‘Steady Cam.’ Just Google ‘Build a steadycam and there are lots of suggestions of how to go about it.

Another method of moving with the camera smoothly, is if you keep it mounted on the folded tripod on your shoulder. That way you get a great effect.

Frame rate, also known as frame frequency and frames per second (FPS), is the frequency (rate) at which an imaging device produces unique consecutive images called ‘frames.’ The term applies equally well to film and video cameras, computer graphics, and motion capture systems. The frame rate is now generally abbreviated as ‘p.’

In the PAL system of Television and Videography in this country, the progressive frame rate is 25p. This means that your camera will capture 25 pictures in every second.

In the US and countries who have adopted the US system, NTSC, the frame rate is 24p.
The zoom function is provided by the camera manufacturer to assist the user in framing a shot.

A lot of amateurs, when they first get a camera, use the zoom like they would playing a trombone, constantly zooming in and out, then in and out again, just because the camera has this function. DON’T! Chances are you’ll make the viewer feel seasick if you overuse the zoom function.

Use the zoom sparingly and if you do, zoom in or out very slowly and certainly not in every scene. Again, watch documentaries and see how often the pros use their zoom.
Panning refers to the rotation in a horizontal plane. Panning a camera results in a motion similar to that of moving their head from one side to another.

Like zooming, use it sparingly and if you pan, do it very slowly unless you desire an special effect.

Tilting refers to a technique in which the camera is stationary and rotates in a vertical plane, similar to moving your head from top to bottom or bottom to top.

Like zooming and panning, use it sparingly and slowly.

You can use a combination of any or all of the above movements. When? Guess!

Video Framing Distance and Angle

Long Shot (LS)
Shot which shows all or most of a fairly large subject (for example, a person) and usually much of the surroundings. Extreme Long Shot (ELS) - see establishing shot: In this type of shot the camera is at its furthest distance from the subject, emphasising the background. Medium Long Shot (MLS): In the case of a standing actor, the lower frame line cuts off his feet and ankles. Some documentaries with social themes favour keeping people in the longer shots, keeping social circumstances rather than the individual as the focus of attention.

Establishing Shot (ES)
Opening shot or sequence, frequently an exterior 'General View' as an Extreme Long Shot (ELS). Used to set the scene.

Medium Shot (MS)
Medium Shot or Mid-Shot (MS). In such a shot the subject or actor and its setting occupy roughly equal areas in the frame. In the case of the standing actor, the lower frame passes through the waist. There is space for hand gestures to be seen. Medium Close Shot (MCS): The setting can still be seen. The lower frame line passes through the chest of the actor. Medium shots are frequently used for the tight presentation of two actors (the two shot), or with dexterity three (the three shot).

Close-up (CU)
A picture which shows a fairly small part of the scene, such as a character's face, in great detail so that it fills the screen. It abstracts the subject from a context. MCU (Medium Close-Up): head and shoulders. BCU (Big Close-Up): forehead to chin. Close-ups focus attention on a person's feelings or reactions, and are sometimes used in interviews to show people in a state of emotional excitement, grief or joy. In interviews, the use of BCUs may emphasise the interviewee's tension and suggest lying or guilt. BCUs are rarely used for important public figures; MCUs are preferred, the camera providing a sense of distance. Note that in western cultures the space within about 24 inches (60 cm) is generally felt to be private space, and BCUs may be invasive.

Angle of shot
The direction and height from which the camera takes the scene. The convention is that in 'factual' scenes subjects should be shot from eye-level only. In a high angle the camera looks down at a character, making the viewer feel more powerful than him or her, or suggesting an air of detachment. A low angle shot places camera below the character, exaggerating his or her importance. An overhead shot is one made from a position directly above the action.

Worm’s eye, Canted and Bird’s eye angles are generally used only to achieve special effects. Or by bad amateurs by mistake.

In movie making, less is best. A lot of amateurs make the mistake of including lots of transition, special effects, fancy titles, just because these are available to them. I say, DON’T! As I said elsewhere, watch professional travel videos, documentaries and television news and you won’t see all this rubbish, unless it is required for special occasions or for adds and we all hate those.

It’s best to shoot standard shots (scenes) preferably on a tripod or at least from steady handheld positions in all framing formats. It makes it so much easier during the editing process. The viewer will also appreciate it.

Make it Interesting
Don’t use too many shots of the same subject or object. If you like an object, study it and determine which is the best angle to shoot it. A well framed shot says much more that lots shots of the same thing.

Make your movies look interesting. Film action in your scenes rather than move the camera. You could for instance do the following:

Film a subject as you normally would, but instead of just ‘ button off’ at the end, pan your camera onto a neutral surface, wall, sky, bushes, water etc. before button off.

Start the next scene from another similar neutral surface, then pan onto your subject. Digital editing makes this very simple but the end result is memorable and will be noticed by your viewers.

Another interesting scene change:
Have one of your friends or travel companion walk right up into your camera. Then, in the next shot,  get the person to stand in front of you facing away. Place the camera against their back and make them walk away, thus opening your new scene.

Think up new ways to do similar things yourself.

Camera Movement
Unless your camera is mounted on a dolly or a steady cam, it is best keeping your camera movements to straight shots or simple slow pans or tilts. (See pages 11 and 12) on how to hold your cameras for best filming techniques.

Camera moves can make your project look super professional or incredibly amateurish depending on how well you use them.
Professional videographers usually follow this one rule of thumb: when it comes to camera movement, it must be motivated. Because it looks cool, is usually not a valid reason for using tricky camera moves. Instead, you can use camera moves to change the viewer's perspective making what you shoot look bigger, smaller, or even scarier. You should use camera movement to tell your story better and to enhance the viewer's experience.

Camera Movement

Panning and  Crabbing
Panning is the easiest type of movement you can do with your camera. You simply move the camera in one direction.

A much more powerful and effective camera movement is crabbing, where the camera is moved in a horizontal direction whilst keeping the subject perfectly framed. Professionals use dollys for that purpose, mainly mounted on tracks. Or they use steadycams.
With a bit of practice and employing a monopod, you can create tracking shots in a limited fashion. But it requires a perfectly steady hand. The end results are stunning scenes if you’re successful.

Talking Heads
If you’re making a travel or holiday movie, don’t be afraid to hand the camera to someone else and get him or her to shoot you telling the viewer where you are. If you’re too shy, film your travel companion answering your question, ‘Where are we’?

Show us why you like the places where you are, tell us your story.
This not only makes the video more interesting, but it helps you to remember exactly where you were during the editing process.
Record an On-Camera intro and out take. This may feel uncomfortable at first, but it will make your video much more interesting. Tell your viewers what they will see, them how you feel about. Be natural, and talk as if you were telling your best friend.

To make your movie really interesting, you could ask someone on camera about the park. Either another tourist, traveling companion or a local.
A lot of locals love talking about their locality or their local customs. They usually don’t mind talking to a filmmaker on camera. For example if you are in a foreign market, buy something from a stall holder or film your travel companions to buy something, while you film the transaction. You can then ask the seller questions about his products, his area or his customs.

If you decide to interview someone about the park there is a rule you must observe.

Don't Cross the Lina

Also Known as The 180ยบ Rule
When shooting people interacting with each other, imagine an invisible line between the people’s eyes. Place the camera(s) on one side of the line only. Don’t shoot from the other side or the viewers will get confused because both people will look in the same direction.

Still Images
It is perfectly acceptable for you to add still images in your production. I suggest however if you do, apply the Ken Burns Effect rather than just a fixed picture.

Ken Burns Effect
We’ll discuss the Kern Burns Effect in detail during our Editing session. The Ken Burns Effect is a type of panning and zooming effect used in video production from still imagery.
The name derives from extensive use of the technique by American documentary maker Ken Burns. Most, if not all, editing software can apply this effect. During playback, a still image looks like it is moving, thus making it look more look like moving pictures in your film.
If you’re lucky enough to be in a place where there is a festival in process, you have ample opportunity to capture wonderful subjects, people, costumes or traditions. Ask locals what’s going on while you’re filming them.

Cutaway shots
Shoot plenty of cutaway shots that you can use when you’re editing. An example, say you’re filming a ‘talking head’ explaining something on camera. That can become extremely boring, so CA shots can be used to show what is being talked about.

Film plenty of footage
When you’re on location, shoot plenty of different scenes of any format we discussed earlier. There is nothing more frustrating when you’re back home editing your film and you realise you forgot to film something or the footage you shot is unusable for any reason.

Shoot a couple of seconds before and after your shots
Shoot scenes from different angles
Frame shots  in various formats
Apply the Rule of Thirds and other Composition practices
Take lots of Cut-away shots
Before leaving a location check some footage for vision and sound.
Practical Experience
In week 2, we put into practice what we’ve learnt so far. We’re imagining we are somewhere in a place we’ve never been before and we’re shooting a travel video.

You may care to work in pairs or in groups.

Editing Process

Linear versus Non Linear Editing
Let me explain the difference between linear and non-linear editing. There is a very big difference.

Linear Editing
In early days of video production, just about all-video footage was edited in a linear fashion. That means, you had two machines, Machine A, in most domestic cases was the camcorder, Machine B was a Video Cassette Recorder.

The videographer  would connect them together with cables, then PLAY A while watching the footage, he would PAUSE A at the spot where he wanted to start his movie. He would press RECORD on B at the same time pressing PLAY again on A. That would transfer the required footage from A to B. This process would be repeated until the movie was finished. The end result was usually pretty primitive and quite frankly a pain to watch. Titling was often done filming arranged let). ters on a sheet of paper either written or stick on letters.

If the editor later wanted to add a scene or rearrange a scene, that could not be done unless the entire editing process was repeated.

Another disadvantage was, you couldn’t really add a sound track or a voice-over and you certainly couldn’t add sound effects (SFX)

Non-Linear Editing
With the advancement in computer technology, non-linear editing is now available to everyone.  Before the 1980s, only TV stations and Video Production Houses were able to afford the machinery required for non-linear editing. That used to involve coordinating multiple laser disks, or banks of VCRs, usually connected to huge editing suites.

The raw footage from the cameras would be recorded onto a laser disk. The editor could then scrub through all the footage, pick an INPOINT where the footage to be used would begin and an OUTPOINT where it would be stopped. This clip was then dumped onto a second laser disk or VCR. The editor would then pick subsequent scenes and repeat the process until the film was completed.

After reviewing the film, individual scenes could then be CUT or SHIFTED to another spot in the movie or simply DELETED, with ease.

Today, there are lots of Non-Linear editing software packages on the market. Most computers come these already loaded

Apple – iMovie
Windows – Movie Maker

These programs can do amazing things for the average amateur, including dissolves, titles, soundtracks and some effects.

There are more free programs available on line. I have no idea what they can do or if they’re any good. You’d have to research these yourself.

Editing Process
The first thing a moviemaker needs to do is digitise all the raw footage. That means copy the footage from the video camera unto the computer’s hard drive. This is mostly done with the help of the Editing Program. Depending on the amount of raw footage you have, this may take some time. Make sure you have plenty of free hard drive space available. I use external hard drives to store my raw footage to keep my computer from ‘clogging up’.

Hard Drive Space
You’ll need between 12 GB/Hr and 30GB/Hr depending on the codec of your editing software and your video format. These days I only shoot and edit 1920X1080 HD video. So I have to allow about 25GB/hour for my raw footage.

If you are happy with a lesser quality video format such as 720X40you only need about 10 GB/Hr of space but the quality is makeable less than that of HD. External hard drive these days are cheap, so why would you go with an inferior system.

I start with music because I always start my editing process with a music track. The reason is that in my books, the soundtrack of a video is equal, if not more important than the vision. How often do you see home movies, where the video maker has edited the vision and then just added a few tracks from his old record collection. There is only one word for it, BORING, maybe two words, VERY BORING.

As I said earlier on, you need to research the music just as well as the vision when you’re creating a video production. As I said in a previous lesson, use music from places you have filmed. If you filmed in the Greek Island, use Greek music. For our Eiffel Tower video, use a French accordion.

If you didn’t have a chance to buy a CD where you were, chances are you’ll find a suitable sound track on the Internet. There are literally hundreds of  sound track to choose from. You just need to be careful that you’re not infringing copyright, if you plan to upload your movie onto the Internet. If you just plan to show your production to friends and family, it is not so important.

If you Google, Copyright Free Music you’ll again find quite a few sites that let you download free music. Even You Tube now have free downloadable music tracks of many genres that you can use if you plan to upload your movies onto the You Tube, or other free hosting channels.

Be Ruthless in Cutting
As I mentioned elsewhere, a good video is short and to the point. Don’t insert clips that are, out of focus, over or under exposed or simply dreadful, even if they include the Queen, or a relative or anything important. If the audio is of low quality or there is wind noise, an aircraft or car noise, don’t worry, that is fine. Sound we can fix, but bad picture quality, we cannot.

Jump Cuts
A jump cut is a cut in film editing in which two sequential shots of the same subject are taken from camera positions that vary only slightly. This type of edit gives the effect of jumping forwards in time. It is a manipulation of temporal space using the duration of a single shot, and fracturing the duration to move the audience ahead. Jump cuts are annoying and make your video look bad.
These days, with NLE method, they can easily be fixed, by either trimming the first or the second clip, or by moving one of the clips or inserting a new one.

Trimming or Lengthen
Trimming a clip in the Timeline is achieved by placing the Playhead at the beginning or the end of a clip and dragging it either left or right depending of of we want to shorten or lengthen a clip.

Inserting Clips
At any stage, when you decide to insert a new clip, just set the inpoint and outpoint, then drag the new selection to the place in the Timeline, where you want to add it, and let go. The new clip will go between the old clips.

Shifting Clips
You can shift clips to any other location in the timeline. Just click and drag the clip then drop it into the new position anytime during the editing process.

Removing Clips
If you find you don’t like a clip in the Timeline, just highlighted it by double-clicking on it and press Escape. The clip is gone from the Timeline but not from the browser, so you can insert it again anywhere at anytime.

The playhead is the marker where you are at any moment. Position the playhead at the spot where you want to add a new clip. For accuracy, you can move the playhead backwards or forwards frame by frame by clicking the ‘<‘ or ‘>’ keys.

Splitting Clips
To split a clip, position the playhead in the clip where you want to split it, then press the and the clip will be split. This is especially handy when you want to shorten a clip accurately. Play the clip while watching or listening, then press the spacebar to stop playing, where you want to cut the clip. Move the playhead lefy or right using your arrow keys to position it accurately then click . Now delete the bit you have just cut.

Just keep adding clips to your Timeline until you are happy with your movie.

Titling and Credits
All editing programs come with a variation of tiles for you to use. You can place these titles over the vision or on plane backgrounds. You can fly them in, scroll them, drop them and dissolve them onto the screen.

You can change size, font and colour and determine the length you want a title to appear on the screen.

There are variations of subtitles you can employ, just like they do on television.

At the end of your production, you can add credits such as who was involved in the photography, editing etc.

A good idea is to credit the music you used in your production, especially if you are using royalty-free music you grabbed from the Internet.

Dissolve Effects

Editing programs also have a variety of dissolve effects for you to use. The most common one is the crossfade effect, where one scene slowly changes into another. With most software, the audio does the same.

Other dissolves are,
·      Wipe
·      Iris
·      Morph
·      Split screen
·      Page turn
·      Fly in
·      Fly out
·      Circle wipe
·      And many others

Dissolves should be used sparingly, as they are in most films or television shows. This is mainly due to stylistic taste. It is very rare to see a shot, which both begins and ends with a dissolve. It could be used in a travel video, when locations or actions change.

Vision Effects
Editing software also includes a variety of vision effects, sometimes also called Special Effects (SFX). You can apply these effects to each individual scene. Or to the entire movie. Same examples of SFX effects most editing software has

·      Old Film Effect
·      Black and White
·      Camcorder
·      Day into Night
·      Night Vision
·      Binoculars
·      And many more

You can use neutral coloured backgrounds for your titles or other text slides. Some people prefer to mount their titles just on black backgrounds or you can use any colour background for text announcements

Picture In Picture (PIP)
Wondershare Video Editor has quite a few ‘preset’ PIP options for you to use to enhance your movies.

Picture Quality
With most editing software you can improve the picture quality, just like you can with photography editing software. Wondershare is no exception.  You can adjust:

·      Brightness
·      Contract
·      Colour

Insert vision onto original sound track
The various clips in your Timeline make up your movie. At any stage, if you want to change a clip, but want to keep the sound track, you can place the new clip on top of the timeline above the old clip. However you need to silence the sound on the new clip. That way the movie will run with the original sound track but the new scene will be shown over the original sound track.

Cut on Beat of Music
If you’ve been watching TV Programs or Documentaries, you will have noticed that professional editors and their directors mostly cut their scene on the beat of the music in a subtle way. Subconsciously, our senses notice that. As they do if the vision changes out of sync. That is why in a lot of movie and TV shows, the soundtrack is laid down first.

You can of course edit the vision first if you prefer, then adjust the vision to suit the music track. It’s just more work, that’s all.

Sound Effects
A video is greatly enhanced by using sound effects (SFX). If you’ve been filming inside a European cathedral, add some organ music. In a video I made some years ago, we were in Cologne, the former German capitol. I shot an establishing scene outside the cathedral then moved inside to take some details. For the soundtrack I used a Bach organ concerto, starting with the scene outside. I reduced the volume to blend in with the ambient noise. Then on the inside scenes, I kept the concerto running at full volume, and reduced the hollow ambient sound you get in a cathedral.

On another video I made on the Pitchi Richi Railway in South Australia, I didn’t like the sound recorded with the camera, it was all over the place depending on the scenes. So I cut the entire original soundtrack and inserted a completely new track I found on a steam train website. Suddenly the video looked great.

You could insert bird noises on a video you shot in a forest or the bush. Just make sure the birds you chose are appropriate for the area. A nightingale wouldn’t work up at Springbrook.

If you shoot in a big city, insert some emergency vehicle sounds in the background. If you film in an office, use some phones ringing.

You’ll be surprised how professional your video suddenly looks and sounds. But never overdo it.

Narration / Voice-Over
If you like to tell your audience where the footage was shot or explain what they are seeing, there are several methods you can do that.

You can do that live to camera during shooting.
You can record your voice on a tape deck, then add the voice as a separate sound track during editing.
You can just use the sound track of your voice from your camera, which you recorded live to during shooting.
You can record your voice onto your computer while playing back the footage or the finished edited video and then add it as a separate audio track.

Once you have finished editing your movie and you are happy about it. I suggest you leave it for at least a week. Then watch it again. There is a chance you’ll find some faults with it or scenes you can improve.

When you’re totally happy with the movie it’s time to share it with others.

Playing movie on your computer
When you saved your movie with your movie making software it created a movie file such as:
These are the most popular formats. There are others but they are unlikely being used in domestic movie making.

When you want to play your file on your computer, just double click on the file and it should start playing.

Playing movie on your TV
You can just plug in your laptop into your TV and play it that way. Or you can copy the file onto a memory stick and plug that into your TV, if your TV has a USB port.
Making a movie file
That should have happened when you saved your movie with your movie-making software.

Burning a DVD
Depending on your computer, use the CD/DVD burn software that came with your computer. If none came with your computer, there are lots of CD/DVD burning software systems available. Some are free, others you need to purchase.
Once you burned the DVD, you can then play it either on your computer or on any DVD player.
Email you movie
When you’ve finished editing your movie, ‘SHARE’ it and select ‘EMAIL’. This will save the movie in a format, small enough to attach to an email. Ordinary movie files are most likely to large to email. It is best to save your movie twice. Once as an ordinary movie file and once as an email file.

Upload to You Tube
It has never been easier to share your movies with others, than to upload it onto You Tube.

If you have a Google account (and who hasn’t these days), then you can create a free You Tube Channel. It’s not difficult, but if you’re not sure how to do it, just Google ‘Create a You Tube Channel’. You can make your channel ‘private’ which means only people you invite can watch your movies, or you can make it ‘public’ which means everyone can view your movies. Don’t worry, it’s quite safe. There are millions of movies on You Tube, so unless you send the link to your movie to people, it’s unlikely anyone will find it.

How to upload a movie
Open your You Tube channel and drag and drop your movie file to the area indicted. It will take some time to upload the movie. While it is uploading, you can write a detailed description about your movie and select a topic such as Travel, Animals, People, Events etc.

If you are editing your movie with Wondershare you can upload your movie directly from within the editor in the Export option.

When the movie has finished uploading, You Tube will send you an email showing you the link to your movie. That’s the link you can send to friends and relatives so they can watch your movie.

Upload to other video channels
There are lots of other movie hosting sites besides You Tube, such as Vimeo, Flickr, Rediff and many more. Check them out.
Upload to a Blog
If you’re a blogger using Google Blogger, you can directly upload your movie file to your blog. However, it takes a very long time and the movies play back somewhat blurry. It is better to upload your movie to You Tube then embed it into your blog. That way you are assured to get a good quality during playback.
Useful Web Sites

Free Music: